Expansionary and contractionary monetary policies are critical tools that government authorities use to control the economy. These policies aim to stabilize the economy by regulating money supply and influencing interest rates. In this article, we will explore an example of these two monetary policies and how they affect the economy.
Expansionary Monetary Policy
An expansionary monetary policy aims to increase the money supply, lower interest rates, and stimulate economic growth. This policy is usually implemented by central banks, such as the Federal Reserve in the United States, during times of economic recession or sluggish growth.
An example of an expansionary monetary policy is the decision of the Federal Reserve in 2019 to cut the federal funds rate three times. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which banks borrow money from each other overnight. Lowering this rate makes it easier for banks to borrow money and lend it to businesses and consumers, thereby increasing spending and investment.
The result of the Federal Reserve`s decision was an increase in business investment, consumer spending, and job creation. The expansionary policy also leads to lower unemployment rates, higher prices, and growth in gross domestic product (GDP).
Contractionary Monetary Policy
A contractionary monetary policy aims to decrease the money supply, increase interest rates, and slow down economic growth. This policy is usually implemented by central banks during times of inflation or to prevent the economy from overheating.
An example of a contractionary monetary policy is the decision of the Federal Reserve in 2018 to increase the federal funds rate four times. The increase in interest rates discourages borrowing and lending by making it more expensive. This results in reduced consumer spending and business investment, which slows down economic growth.
The result of the Federal Reserve`s decision was a decrease in GDP growth, reduced inflation, and a slowdown in job creation. This policy is often used to prevent inflation from spiraling out of control, which can lead to a decrease in the purchasing power of money.
Expansionary and contractionary monetary policies have a significant impact on the economy. They are critical tools used by government authorities to regulate the money supply and influence interest rates. By understanding the effects of these policies, businesses and investors can make informed decisions to ensure their financial stability.